At the southern end of the Americas lies the Republic of Argentina—the country's official name according to the Constitution, which was sanctioned in 1853. Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires (Autonomous City of Buenos Aires) is the nation’s capital. The Republic of Argentina has an area of a little more than 3,700,000 square kilometers, which extends across South America and Antarctica (including the South Orkney Islands) and the southern islands (Islas Malvinas, South Georgia, and the South Sandwich Islands). It is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north; Chile and the Atlantic Ocean to the south; Brazil, Uruguay and the Atlantic Ocean to the east; and Chile to the west.
In the first half of the sixteenth century, the territories that would become Argentina were conquered and colonized by the Spanish Crown. During the first colonial period, the territories were under the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of Peru. Upon the ascent of the Bourbons to the Spanish throne at the beginning of the eighteenth century, the territories were incorporated into the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, the capital of which was Buenos Aires. The severing of colonial ties occurred at the beginning of the nineteenth century. On May 25, 1810, during the so-called May Week, the cabildo recognized the authority of a revolutionary junta and the first national government. After military campaigns against the royalists, the Declaration of Independence was signed July 9, 1816, at the congress assembled in Tucumán. The nineteenth century set the scene for the process of forming and consolidating of the Argentine state, and of the symbolic shaping of its national identity, which was marked by the predominantly European immigration that took place from the second half of the nineteenth century to the first half of the twentieth century.
The purpose of this article is to trace the history of literary translation in Argentina, beginning with a periodization based on the shifting functions of translation and changing normative tendencies. Taking into account institutional characteristics, selection criteria, and the social identity of those involved, we have established the following identifiable components in the history of translation in Argentina:
1. the first translations published in book format in the second half of the nineteenth century, their counterparts in newspaper serials and magazines, and their sanctioning “conservative regime”;
2. the first systematic collections made by publishing houses, which accompanied the establishment of Buenos Aires as a “peripheral modernity” and the appearance of “cultural industries”;
3. translations in the magazine and publishing house Sur and other contemporary publishers in the 1940s and 1950s;
4. the role of translation during the publishing “boom” of Argentine books in the 1970s and the “New Left” publishers;
5. publishing practices in the context of censorship and scarcity of resources: inexpensive books, and the handling and reprinting of translations in the Centro Editor de América Latina;
6. the politics of translation during the dictatorship and the role of exile in the unification of the Spanish American translation market;
7. translation in the process of the globalization of publishing at the end of the twentieth century and the beginning of the twenty-first century.
|Alejandrina Falcón & Patricia Willson|
|Falcón, Alejandrina & Patricia Willson. 2022. "Argentina (History of literary translation)" @ ENTI (Encyclopedia of translation & interpreting). AIETI.|