According to the first Spanish settlers, the Inca had named this territory Chile. At that time, the majority language was Mapudungun, still spoken today in the south. In the early 19th century, Chile gained independence from the Spanish Crown, which was unable to conquer or colonize the entire territory. Chile’s present-day borders have resulted from wars waged in the late 19th century against Peru and Bolivia, in the north, and against the southern Mapuche, an indigenous people independent until then. An important recipient of European immigration between the 19th and 20th centuries, Chile currently receives immigrants from neighboring countries and Asia. In the last census, 12% of the population identified as having indigenous heritage.
Panorama of translation in Chile from a socio-historic perspective that combines translation studies and intellectual history. During the colonial period (16th-19th centuries), due to its geopolitical situation, settlement conditions, and extended wars against the Mapuche indigenous people, Chile’s lettered population and production was quite limited. On the other hand, these same conditions make Chile a singular case for studying European-Indigenous diplomacy and linguistic mediation. The Independence process, the influence of revolutionary ideas from France and the United States, liberalism and positivism, literary romanticism, as well as classical culture and the Republican values it implied, constitute another scene in which Chile, like other Hispanic American nations, translated and adapted foreign works to its culture and society throughout the 19th century. As an axis of innovation, translation was situated at the center of the literary system until the end of the 19th century. Certain scholars thus displayed interest in studying the primary autochthonous language, Mapudungun, which gave rise to ethnographic translation and the first manifestations of resistance to these scientific representations, also by means of translation and heterolinguistic practices. As the 20th century progressed, translation shifted to the margins of the literary system, abandoning 19th-century ideals so as to follow the dynamics of different political and social scenarios throughout the rest of the century and into the present.
|Gertrudis Payàs Puigarnau, Susana Gazmuri Stein & Claudio Alberto Soltmann Cáceres|
|Payàs Puigarnau, Gertrudis; Susana Gazmuri Stein & Claudio Alberto Soltmann Cáceres. 2022. "Chile" @ ENTI (Encyclopedia of translation & interpreting). AIETI.|