|SPA Lectura fácil|
The first adapted book considered Easy-to-Read was published in Sweden (lättläst) in 1968 by the Swedish National Board for Education (Sommaren med Monika, de Per Anders Fogelström). The term was later coined and widespread by both the international organisation Inclusion Europe, which is based in Brussels and was founded in 1988 under the auspices of the EU, and the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA). Both have contributed to the elaboration of different Easy-to-Read adaptation guidelines and their translation into other languages. In Spain, Easy-to-Read first appeared in 2003 with the formation of the Associació Lectura Fàcil. The term was also included in article nine of the International Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities, passed by the UN General Assembly in 2006.
Easy-to-Read should not be confused with plain language, which seeks comprehensible information. Plain language is not aimed at collective groups with reading difficulties, but rather focuses on avoiding the obscurantism of specialised languages and, above all, seeks clarity so that judicial and administrative texts are comprehensible for all citizens (Montolío y Tascón 2020). Literary texts are a fundamental part of Easy-to-Read production but have never been integrated into the concept of plain language. In relation to audio visual products, the term Easy-to-Understand is sometimes used. See the EASIT project.
Easy-to-Read is a modality of intralinguistic translation (from text to text in the same language) and intersemiotic translation (from text to image) aimed at people with reading difficulties. The original texts are adapted or created by following guidelines and recommendations gathered from internationally recognised texts, such as the translation into Spanish of the Guidelines for Easy-to-Read materials from the IFLA (International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions), Information for All by Inclusion Europe and FEAPS (today known as Plena Inclusión), and thirdly, the recent experimental Spanish standard UNE 153101 EX Lectura Fácil. The adaptation guidelines include important changes in four areas: format, linguistic simplification, inclusion of images (photographs, drawings, and pictograms) and the use of comments or other paratextual support. Linguistic simplification is comprised of syntactic, pragmatic or lexical transformations, always with the aim of maintaining the original meaning and intentions. The translation assignment is based on producing clear texts which are easily understood by the target groups, including people with intellectual disabilities, while also benefiting other groups. Originating in Sweden towards the end of the 1960s, Easy-to-Read is a relatively new field. Today is has strong institutional support ratified by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and other binding national laws. In the Spanish-speaking field, we must highlight the boost it has received by Plena Inclusión and Associació Lectura Fàcil, and especially the works of García Muñoz (2012, 2014). This accessibility translation modality is applicable to any type of text: literary, medical, administrative, judicial, informational, tourist or educational. Some Easy-to-Read strategies can also be used in the elaboration of audio visual and digital products. In translation studies, Easy-to-Read is found under the accessibility framework and is interrelated with other disciplines such as psychology and pedagogy. Easy-to-Read is also considered a support product for cognitive accessibility (Jiménez Hurtado & Medina Reguera, 2021).
|Catalina Jiménez Hurtado & Ana Medina Reguera|
|Jiménez Hurtado, Catalina & Ana Medina Reguer. 2022. "Easy reading" @ ENTI (Encyclopedia of translation & interpreting). AIETI.|