|SPA Interpretación y violencia de género
Interpreting in contexts of violence against women: This entry (originally written in European Spanish) uses the term gender‑based violence as defined in Spanish legislation, which refers to violence exercised by men towards women, within a present or past affective relationship, regardless of cohabitation. Hence, although synonymous with violence against women in other fields, in this case, the title ‘Interpreting in contexts of gender-based violence’ is more accurate and faithful to the content of the entry.
Interpreting in domestic violence contexts: Although the terms domestic violence and gender‑based violence are often used interchangeably in informal contexts, there is an important conceptual difference between the two. In the Spanish legal context, the former refers to violence exercised at home by one family member against another member of the same family. However, in the case of gender‑based violence, the origin of this violence is identified in terms of gender (from man to woman), and in Spanish legislation it is restricted to that exercised by male partners or ex-partners, regardless of whether they share or have shared a home or there has been cohabitation.
Nevertheless, it should be noted that the scope and meaning of the terms used herein (gender-based violence, violence against women, domestic violence, etc.) may vary in English depending on the legal context of each country or region and may encompass one or more types of violence.
For instance, article 3 of the Istanbul Convention (2011), which was the first international binding legal instrument to fight against violence against women, defines three different terms referred to this violation of human rights: violence against women, gender-based violence against women, and domestic violence.
In UK legislation it is also common to find different terms with different legal implications when dealing with gender-based violence, which is sometimes referred to as domestic abuse (Domestic Abuse Act 2021). Likewise, in the US we find different definitions and terms used in Federal and State Law that may include the notion of violence against women and children, such as family violence or domestic violence (e.g. Violence Against Women Act [VAWA], California Penal Code Section 13700).
Violence against women is a type of discrimination suffered by many women around the world and affects different groups in different ways. Migrant and refugee women who do not speak the host country language are a particularly vulnerable group due to the cultural, social, and linguistic barriers they encounter.
Countries have an obligation to provide victims with the means to understand and be understood in order to guarantee their right to information and justice, and this obligation includes the provision of quality translation and interpretation services (Molina 2006). Moreover, international and EU law states that professionals providing services to gender‑based violence victims and survivors should have specialised training. This need for specialised training is also applicable to interpreters since they are the critical link between service providers and victims (Naredo 2015).
This entry reviews the international legislation on gender‑based violence and on the victims' right to quality translation and interpretation (Del-Pozo-Triviño 2017). It also discusses the different areas of specialisation as well as the skills that translator and interpreter training must include (Abril 2015, Toledano and Del-Pozo-Triviño 2015). When translators and interpreters are not adequately qualified and language services are not provided by professionals, then victims can be revictimised by the very system that should guarantee their rights and security regardless of their nationality, ethnic or national origin, race, religion or any other condition or status (Toledano, Abril, Del-Pozo-Triviño et al. 2015, Toledano 2019).
|María Isabel Del Pozo Triviño & Doris Fernandes del Pozo|
|Del Pozo Triviño, María Isabel & Doris Fernandes del Pozo. 2022. "Interpreting and gender-based violence" @ ENTI (Encyclopedia of translation and interpreting). AIETI.|