|SPA Paráfrasis POL Parafraza|
According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the noun paraphrase, meaning ‘a restatement of a text or passage, giving the sense of the original in other words, often in fuller terms and greater detail’, comes from the ancient Greek paraphrazein where para- expresses modification and phrazein expresses the verb ‘to tell’. The noun paraphrase entered the English language via Latin in the mid 16th century and retained its original form over centuries. According to the same dictionary the verb to paraphrase means ‘to restate, interpret, express the meaning of in other words’.
Rewording, reformulation, intralingual translation.
Paraphrasing, defined as an alternative way to convey the same information, is a broad and vague phenomenon. The reformulation or rewording can involve modifications ranging from shallow surface restructuring to deep manipulation of the original content. This can be done for various reasons—for example, to avoid verbatim repetition and direct citation, to adjust the content for a better effect on the reader/receiver, to simplify or shorten the original text, to adapt or “translate” the meaning for a different purpose and/or to create a completely new text tailor-made for a different reader than the one intended by the original author. Vila, Martí & Rodríguez (2014: 213) conclude that “given the vague and multifaceted nature of paraphrasing […], paraphrase boundaries are not fixed and depend on the task and objective”. In other words, paraphrasing can range from the reformulation of meaning by using a synonym or an alternative syntactic structure to creating a new text, i.e., intralingual translation. Paraphrasing works on linguistic forms and meaning, so its family resemblance to intralingual and interlingual translation in terms of cognitive processing and communicative function seems justifiable. The multifaceted nature of paraphrasing as a broad cognitive phenomenon makes it an interesting area of study for many language-related disciplines including communication studies, foreign language teaching, computational linguistics and Translation Studies.
|Whyatt, Bogusława. 2022. "Paraphrasing" @ ENTI (Encyclopedia of translation & interpreting). AIETI.|